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guerre du péloponnèse

Sparta was later humbled by Thebes at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, but the rivalry between Athens and Sparta was brought to an end a few decades later when Philip II of Macedon conquered all of Greece except Sparta, which was later subjugated by Philip's son Alexander in 331 BC. All of this was due, in no small part, to Alcibiades. Both Brasidas and Cleon were killed in Athenian efforts to retake Amphipolis (see Battle of Amphipolis). D’une confédération d’alliés, la ligue de Délos se transforme en un empire inégalitaire où les cités qui se révoltent sont impitoyablement châtiées. Athens was then victorious at the naval battle of Arginusae. [35], The overall effect of the war in Greece proper was to replace the Athenian Empire with a Spartan empire. A peace with Sparta might have been possible, but the Athenian fleet, now based on the island of Samos, refused to accept the change. The Athenian army, attempting to withdraw overland to other, more friendly Sicilian cities, was divided and defeated; the entire Athenian fleet was destroyed, and virtually the entire Athenian army was sold off into slavery. [12] When the rebellious helots were finally forced to surrender and permitted to evacuate the state, the Athenians settled them at the strategic city of Naupaktos on the Gulf of Corinth. As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable. From 414 BC, Darius II, ruler of the Achaemenid Empire had started to resent increasing Athenian power in the Aegean and had his satrap Tissaphernes enter into an alliance with Sparta against Athens, which in 412 BC led to the Persian reconquest of the greater part of Ionia. For a time during this conflict, Athens controlled not only Megara but also Boeotia; at its end, however, in the face of a massive Spartan invasion of Attica, the Athenians ceded the lands they had won on the Greek mainland, and Athens and Sparta recognized each other's right to control their respective alliance systems. Following the destruction of the Sicilian Expedition, Lacedaemon encouraged the revolt of Athens's tributary allies, and indeed, much of Ionia rose in revolt against Athens. Cavalry was limited to about 30 horses, which proved to be no match for the large and highly trained Syracusan cavalry. Class, Faction and Policy 403–386 B.C., New York 2014, p. 80. The Athenian force consisted of over 100 ships and some 5,000 infantry and light-armored troops. Through cunning strategy, Lysander totally defeated the Athenian fleet, in 405 BC, at the Battle of Aegospotami, destroying 168 ships and capturing some three or four thousand Athenian sailors. The Spartans summoned forces from all of their allies, including Athens, to help them suppress the revolt. Roughly one-third to two-thirds of the Athenian population died. With the treasury and emergency reserve fund of 1,000 talents dwindling away, the Athenians were forced to demand even more tribute from her subject allies, further increasing tensions and the threat of further rebellion within the Empire. After the battle of Aegospotami, Sparta took over the Athenian empire and kept all of its tribute revenues for itself; Sparta's allies, who had made greater sacrifices for the war effort than had Sparta, got nothing.[3]. We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. In him, Cyrus found a man who was willing to help him become king, just as Lysander himself hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian prince. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC)[2] was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. The Athenians felt obliged to assist their ally. With its victory at Mantinea, Sparta pulled itself back from the brink of utter defeat, and re-established its hegemony throughout the Peloponnese. The fear of plague was so widespread that the Spartan invasion of Attica was abandoned, their troops being unwilling to risk contact with the diseased enemy. The post off Pylos struck Sparta where it was weakest: its dependence on the helots, who tended the fields while its citizens trained to become soldiers. In 403 BC, the oligarchs were overthrown and a democracy was restored by Thrasybulus. [10] According to Thucydides, although the Spartans took no action at this time, they "secretly felt aggrieved". The Ionian states that rebelled expected protection, and many rejoined the Athenian side. [11] The democrats at Samos, loyal to the bitter last, held on slightly longer, and were allowed to flee with their lives. In the 17th year of the war, word came to Athens that one of their distant allies in Sicily was under attack from Syracuse. Although the power of Athens was broken, it made something of a recovery as a result of the Corinthian War and continued to play an active role in Greek politics. Their opposition led to the reinstitution of a democratic government in Athens within two years. The Spartans, whose intervention would have been the trigger for a massive war to determine the fate of the empire, called a congress of their allies to discuss the possibility of war with Athens. The Athenians were thoroughly defeated. Comme la raison grecque en général, la raison historique est fille de la cité. After his defection, Alcibiades claimed to the Spartans that the Athenians planned to use Sicily as a springboard for the conquest of all of Italy and Carthage, and to use the resources and soldiers from these new conquests to conquer the Peloponnese. Probeer het nog eens. Revolt and faction threatened in Athens itself. As prominent historian J. Grèce Classique : la guerre du Péloponnèse et la domination spartiate. Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities, the Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece.[6]. He prevented the Athenian fleet from attacking Athens; instead, he helped restore democracy by more subtle pressure. Led militarily by a clever new general Demosthenes (not to be confused with the later Athenian orator Demosthenes), the Athenians managed some successes as they continued their naval raids on the Peloponnese.

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